10. It’s ColOmbia, and not ColUmbia. What is now Colombia and Before the arrival of the Spanish into the region, the Muisca people lived on the plateau where modern-day Bogotá is located. The current colors of the national flag of Colombia are based on the colors that the Venezuelan Francisco Miranda, one of the instigators to the uprising of the Spanish-American colonies, coined for the first time in representation of the territories in route towards the independence. Colombia historically has been the world's leading producer of emeralds, although production has fallen in recent years. The U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement was signed by President Bush in November 2006, and is awaiting congressional approval as of September 2007. The Colombian Government is committed to the eradication of all illicit crops, interdiction of illegal drug shipments and financial controls to prevent money laundering. The Spanish were the first Europeans to arrive and they founded the first settlement of Santa Maria in 1525. A new constitution in 1991 brought about major reforms to Colombia's political institutions. Learn more about the world with our collection of regional and country maps. Starbucks opened its 1000th store in Latin America, and the first in the city of Medellín, Colombia. But why is the world so in love with Colombian coffee? The city was founded by the Muisca people long before the arrival of the Spanish, who established their own city there. Full independence was proclaimed in 1813, and in 1819 the Republic of Greater Colombia was formed to include all the territory of the former Viceroyalty (Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Panama). In December 2003, the Colombian Self-Defense Forces (AUC) paramilitary group entered into a peace agreement with the government that has led to the collective demobilization of over 31,000 AUC members. The nine eastern lowlands departments, constituting about 54% of Colombia's area, have less than 3% of the population and a density of less than one person per square kilometer (two persons per sq. The army suppressed an M-19 attack on the Palace of Justice in Bogota in November 1985, during which 115 people were killed, including 11 Supreme Court justices. The government not only tolerates graffiti but also encourages and sponsors street art. But then luck struck Spain, and Spain struck a mountain. Bogota is somewhat “Americanized” and has amazing nightlife. In March 2006, Bogota hosted the Sixth Regular Session of the Inter-American Committee against Terrorism. Colombia is bordered on the northwest by Panama, on the east by Venezuela and Brazil, and on the southwest by Peru and Ecuador. Terrorist groups in Colombia are actively engaged in narcotics production and trafficking. Cano Cristales – the “River of Five Colors” or the “Liquid Rainbow”, is a river in Colombia located in the Serrania de la Macarena province of Meta. Colombia forms part of the megadiverse countries’ list. A 40-year conflict between government forces and anti-government insurgent groups and illegal paramilitary 28. In late 2006, the Supreme Court began investigations and ordered the arrest of some members of Congress for actions on behalf of paramilitary groups. FARC, the chief rebel group in Colombia, also said it would soon free the remaining ten prisoners of war. Unknown was whether FARC, also known as Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, would release the kidnapped civilians they currently hold or whether the orders can be enforced among all the rebels in the group. Colombian authors produced works of prose and poetry through the colonial era onward. 1829-30 - Gran Colombia dissolved when Venezuela and Ecuador split off, leaving present-day Colombia and Panama a separate state known as … Travelers can check the latest health information with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia. 27. Narcotics and TerrorismThe U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration estimates that more than 80% of the worldwide powdered cocaine supply and as much as 90% of the powdered cocaine smuggled into the United States is produced in Colombia. One of the Pablo Escobar facts that started everything. According to his defense minister, during 2003 more than 16,000 suspected leftist guerrillas and right-wing paramilitary vigilantes either surrendered, were apprehended, or were killed. Capital Facts for Bogotá, Colombia September 22, 2020 by Danny Metrics Bogotá flag Located near the center of South America’s second-most populous nation, Bogotá (officially Bogotá, D.C.) is the capital city of the Republic of Colombia. It is made from sugarcane and is the best drink to enjoy the Colombian sun. Colombia hosts the Cartagena Film Festival, the oldest film festival in Latin America. But it was Alonso de Ojeda the first to do an exploration in the area of Gulf of Darién. Colombia is the only overland gateway to South America and is assumed to have been the route pioneered by the continent's first human inhabitants, who migrated from North and Central America. Uribe has produced some impressive results in fixing his country's ills, however. Colombia is comprised of many regional cultures.Many of the indigenous groups of Colombia have embraced the Spanish cultural influences. It is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Key Facts & Information HISTORY OF COLOMBIA. Two civil wars resulted from bitter rivalry between the Conservative and Liberal parties: The War of a Thousand Days (1899-1903) claimed an estimated 100,000 lives and La Violencia (the Violence) (1946-1957) claimed about 300,000 lives. CTRL + SPACE for auto-complete. 59. The culture of the Caribbean coast is way different than that in Bogota or in the coffee region. Pablo Escobar was so rich he offered $10 billion to waive off Colombia’s National debt. Colombia has also become a major cultural exporter, now coming in second behind Mexico for most cultural exports in Latin America. This internal fighting in Colombia has led to the displacement of many individuals across the country. )Population Below the Poverty Line: 27.8% (2017 est.). Taken by Joel Duncan via unsplash.com. The music is also thumping and pumping in Colombia. Emergency information concerning Americans traveling abroad may be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada or the regular toll line 1-202-501-4444 for callers outside the U.S. and Canada. Colombia Overview - Overview - Customs and Culture - Diet and Recipes - Language - Religion - Students Life - Interesting Facts People Government - Politics Geography Economy News - Weather History Photos - Video Travel En Español Sources United States Edition (202) 512-1800. Bolívar united Colombia, Venezuela, Panama, and Ecuador in the Republic of Greater Colombia (1819–1830), but he lost Venezuela and Ecuador to separatists. In 1990, the administration of President Cesar Gaviria (1990-94) initiated economic liberalization or "apertura," with tariff reductions, financial deregulation, privatization of state-owned enterprises and adoption of a more liberal foreign exchange rate. The area covered by modern day Colombia was originally inhabited by the indigenous tribes Muisca, Quimbaya, and Tairona. This four day festival of color, parades, street parties and costumes takes place every year four days prior to Ash Wednesday. 14. 30. Thirty cities have a population of 100,000 or more. 4.7 out of 5 stars 7. In recent years Colombia (much like South Korea since the 1990s) has undergone major dedicated efforts to export their pop culture around the globe. Colombia is presently the 16th-greatest coal producing country, accounting for about 1% of the world's total annual coal production, and the largest producer in Latin America (65.8 million tons in 2006). History - History - National Symbols - Expanded History - Events and Holidays - Timeline; Photos - Video - Photos - Video - Videos; Travel - Travel - Travel Maps ... Colombia Facts. Colombia, which is located at the northern tip of South America, is a country of lush rainforests, towering mountains and coffee plantations. Incidentally, it’s on the run, and has moved more than a thousand miles in the last 170 million years. Panama separated from Colombia, partly due to the United States involvement in building the Panama Canal. The Spanish, having begun their colonization of the Caribbean, expanded their empire onto the continental mainland at the start of the 1500s. The government of Colombia found a $2 billion Spanish shipwreck under the sea near its coast. Columbia Bar, a sandbar in the estuary of the Columbia River; Columbia Country, the region of British Columbia encompassing the northern portion of that river's upper reaches . Alvaro Uribe of the Liberal Party easily won the presidential election in May 2002. It is also a country where 30% of the people live in poverty with food insecurity and insufficient education. On February 28, 2008, FARC rebels released four more Colombian hostages, all former members of Congress held in captivity for six years, after negotiations with President Chavez of Venezuela. 1. Need a reference? Taken by Joel Duncan via unsplash.com. TRAVEL AND BUSINESS INFORMATIONThe U.S. Department of State's Consular Information Program advises Americans traveling and residing abroad through Consular Information Sheets, Public Announcements, and Travel Warnings. Colombia is a huge country of around 50 million people, so it can be hard to generalize. Colombia is a place of fun, frolic, and festivity. The theme of most children’s games, El Dorado, is actually a mythical city in ancient Colombia. Colombia is a country located in the very north of South America. The unemployment rate in December 2006 was 11.4%, down from 15.1% in December 2002. The two countries have signed agreements on asset sharing and chemical control. On June 15, 2014, Juan Manuel Santos won reelection with 53.1% of the vote and Oscar Ivan Zuluaga 46.9%. Strange yet real fun facts about Colombia We have only four Fun Facts about Colombia . Infoplease is part of the FEN Learning family of educational and reference sites for parents, teachers and students. Our editors update and regularly refine this enormous body of information to bring you reliable information. Chavez subsequently withdrew the Venezuelan ambassador to Colombia. Everyone and everything is sweet in Colombia, including its local alcohol, Aguardiente. In 2006, new FDI totaled $6.3 billion, an increase of 294% from 2002. Here, for an unknown, weird reason, people put blocks of salty cheese into their coffee when they are finished drinking it, and eat the mushy blobs of coffee soaked cheese. These civilizations were organized in tribes, each ruled by a … Colombia has beautiful, tropical rainforests. Here I bring 7 cool facts about Bogotá history you probably didn’t know and to refresh the ones you have probably heard before. President Uribe was reelected with 62% of the vote in May 2006. It still broke down into the Nueva Granada and then into United States of Colombia. 4. Bogota, the capital of Colombia, is a mecca for street artists. 49. Belisario Betancur Cuartas, a Conservative who assumed the presidency in 1982, unsuccessfully attempted to stem the guerrilla violence. 7. The different groups who settled what is now called Colombia include the Tairona, the Quimbaya, and the Muisca. Colombia maintained a tradition of civilian government and regular, free, elections. These people are little known internationally because they left few enduring monuments. A U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) study shows that Colombian tax rates (both personal and corporate) are among the highest in Latin America. Pastrana AdministrationThe administration of Andres Pastrana (1998-2002), a Conservative, faced increased countrywide attacks by the FARC and ELN, widespread drug production and the expansion of paramilitary groups. Some tribes, such as the Inca, headed further south and built major civilizations, while smaller groups settled in what is now Colombia and eventually reached a high level of development. Dance, music, art and culture make Colombia unique. Tejo is the native and national sport of Colombia. Spain, which looted them in the first place, has demanded the money back in an international dispute. The country is now one of the safest in South America, imposes short-term laws to avoid violence and has eradicated it’s drug-fuelled past to create an absolutely beautiful place to live, visit and teach in. June is a month filled with LGBT pride, news, rights, and of course a time to reflect on everything that brought us here. All Colombians speak Spanish except for certain populations that live in the Amazonian basin. In 1996 he was accused of accepting campaign contributions from drug traffickers, but the House of Representatives absolved him of the charges. New security measures and increased drilling activity have slowed the drop in petroleum production, allowing Colombia to continue to export through 2010 or 2011, given current production estimates. Too much nationalism for a country its size! In 1997, the United States and Colombia signed an important maritime ship-boarding agreement to allow for search of suspected drug-running vessels. Led by Escobar, the group functioned as a drug cartel and a terrorist-type criminal group at the same time. In the early 2000s the government pass legislation encouraging the development of the country's film industry. In late February 2012, FARC announced an end to its long time practice of kidnapping civilians for financial gains. Their safe return is a priority goal of the United States and Colombia. The eastern half is a low, jungle-covered plain, drained by spurs of the Amazon and Orinoco Rivers, inhabited mostly by isolated tropical-forest Indian tribes. It is mandatory for radio and public television in Colombia to play the national anthem every day at 6 am and 6 pm. Illicit Drugs: Illicit producer of coca, opium poppy, and cannabis; world's leading coca cultivator with 188,000 hectares in coca cultivation in 2016, a 18% increase over 2015, producing a potential of 710 mt of pure cocaine; the world's largest producer of coca derivatives; supplies cocaine to nearly all of the US market and the great majority of other international drug markets; in 2016, the Colombian government reported manual eradication of 17,642 hectares; Colombia suspended aerial eradication in October 2015 making 2016 the first full year without aerial eradication; a significant portion of narcotics proceeds are either laundered or invested in Colombia through the black market peso exchange; Colombia probably remains the second largest supplier of heroin to the US market; opium poppy cultivation was estimated to be 1,100 hectares in 2015, sufficient to potentially produce three metric tons of pure heroin. U.S. exports to Colombia in 2006 were $6.9 billion, up 13.2% from the previous year. It is located on the Northwest coast of South America, bordered by Panama, Venezuela, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru. On May 28, 2006, President Uribe was reelected with 62% of the vote. Colombia loves anything and everything that has something to do with Futbol (soccer). Colombia is the only country in South America to have coastlines on the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. © 2020 TheFactFile.Org. Republic of Gran Colombia formed with Ecuador, Panama and Venezuela. There is archaeological evidence of the existence of pottery in Colombia earlier than anywhere else in the Americas. The FARC is believed responsible for more than half of the cocaine entering the United States. 46. Learn some interesting information about Colombia while enjoying a range of fun facts and trivia that's perfect for kids! A similar tax to be imposed from 2007-2011 is expected to raise up to $3.6 billion. Facts about Colombia; History; Trade with Colombia; Why is Colombian coffee the world’s favorite? Bolivar's supporters, who later formed the nucleus of the Conservative Party, sought strong centralized government, alliance with the Roman Catholic Church and a limited franchise. 19. But it was Alonso de Ojeda the first to do an exploration in the area of Gulf of Darién. Experts believe that 3000 out of the 14000 spices of butterflies are found in Colombia. While officials say the program has eradicated more than a million acres of coca plants, Colombian drug traffickers are still managing to supply 90% of the cocaine used in the U.S. and 50% of the heroin—the same percentages supplied five years ago, when the program began. In congressional elections in March 2006, the three leading pro-Uribe parties (National Unity, Conservative Party, and Radical Change) won clear majorities in both houses of Congress. Colombians can enjoy 18 public holidays each year. 54. In the 1990s, numerous right-wing paramilitary groups also formed, made up of drug traffickers and landowners. 17. Today, only about 1% of the people can be identified as fully indigenous on the basis of language and customs. You want to find out fun facts about Colombia but, you probably don’t even know where on Earth Colombia is located … take it easy; this article aims to tell you all those details. The M-19 was one of the parties that participated in the process to enact a new constitution (see below), which took effect in 1991. Mining and energy related investments have grown because of higher oil prices, increased demand and improved output. Popular music is probably the country's best known export (with musicians like Shakira, Carlos Vives, and Juanes). The ELN and the government began a round of talks with the Colombian Government mediated by the Mexican Government in mid-2004. Colombia has been a contributor of very important advances in medicine, biology, geology, physics, mathematics, anthropology, and psychology. Medellin is located in “Valle de la Burrá” (Burrá Valley) One of the most famous drug lords and mafia bosses from Medellin’s history is Pablo Escobar. The nominal GDP per capita is $14,100. Two civil wars resulted from bitter rivalry between the Conservative and Liberal parties: The War of a Thousand Days (1899-1902) claimed an estimated 100,000 lives and La Violencia (1946-1957) cost another 300,000 Colombians. 03 February 2017 Features, Colombia Forget about everything you thought you knew about Colombia. There is so much to this country. Good logic: once you do steal it, it is yours. The United States is Colombia's largest trading partner, representing about 40% of Colombia's exports and 26.6% of its imports. mi.). The history of Colombia includes the settlements and society by indigenous peoples, most notably, the Muisca Confederation, Quimbaya Civilization, and Tairona Chiefdoms; the Spanish arrived in 1499 and initiated a period of annexation and colonization, most noteworthy being Spanish conquest of the Muisca; ultimately creating the Viceroyalty of New Granada, with its capital at Bogotá. Other Contact InformationU.S. All the hard work did work out, and Spain finally mined out silver, lots and lots of silver. 39. On March 7, 2008, during a summit meeting in the Dominican Republic, the leaders of Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, and Nicaragua ended their diplomatic dispute over Colombia's raid into Ecuador. Colombia has been inhabited by various indigenous peoples since at least 12,000 BCE, including the Muisca, Quimbaya, and the Tairona. In 1508, Vasco Nuñez de Balboa reached Colombia alongside Martín Fernández de Enciso. The Marxist-inspired FARC—the largest rebel group in Latin America—has been waging guerilla wars against the Colombian government for 40 years. Colombia is also a significant producer of gold, silver, and platinum. The freed prisoners, three men and one woman, included Luis Eladio Perez, Orlando Beltran, Jorge Gechem, and Gloria Polanco de Losada. The name "Colombia" is derived from the last name of the explorer Christopher Columbus. The country's current refining capacity is 299,200 barrels per day. 34. In November 1998, Pastrana ceded a sparsely populated area the size of Switzerland in south-central Colombia to the FARC's control to serve as a neutral zone where peace negotiations could take place. Available on the Internet at http://www.state.gov, the Department of State web site provides timely, global access to official U.S. foreign policy information, including Background Notes and daily press briefings along with the directory of key officers of Foreign Service posts and more. The condor signifies liberty as well as sovereignty, the yellow symbolizes the natural riches of the country while the red symbolizes the bloodshed in the war for independence. Colombia is bounded on the north by the Caribbean Sea, the northwest by Panama, the south by Ecuador and Peru, the east by Venezuela, the southeast by Brazil, and the west by the Pacific Ocean. The History of Colombia While the Aztecs and the Incas built empires that extended control over vast regions of pre-Columbian America, Colombia was settled by a number of smaller groups of peoples such as the Tayronas and the Muiscas. The ELN withdrew from the talks after the Mexican Government voted to condemn Cuba's human rights record at the United Nations in April 2005. The golden rule of Colombia: If you hear music, start moving. In 2006, a U.S. government survey acknowledged that coca production in the country had in fact increased by 26%, and that aerial spraying of the illegal crops—the primary strategy of Plan Colombia—was failing. Yes, Colombians love to drink down the Avena, which is literally oatmeal juice. Foreign InvestmentThe United States is the largest source of new foreign direct investment (FDI) in Colombia, particularly in the areas of coal and petroleum. By 2006, the United States had invested $4 billion into Plan Colombia, the joint U.S.-Colombia coca antinarcotics plan begun in 2000. Among those extradited in 2005 were Cali Cartel leaders Gilberto Rodriguez Orejuela and his brother Miguel, and FARC leaders Juvenal Ovidio Palmera Pineda (aka "Simon Trinidad") and Omaira Rojas Cabrera (aka "Sonia"). As a result of the government's military and police operations, the strength of the FARC has been reduced in major areas. Colombia is a very diverse country. 9. Since neither had a majority, a run-off election was held the following month. Capital Bogota Government Type presidential republic Currency Colombian pesos (COP) Population 49,084,841 Total … For additional information on international travel, see http://www.usa.gov/Citizen/Topics/Travel/International.shtml. By the time of the Spanish arrival in the 1500s, the Muisca were especially prominent in the area, having organized into a loose confederation that controlled a great deal of valuable land. 1. In 1861, President Tomas Cyprian de Mosquera ordered that the pavilion of the future United States of Colombia (1863-1886) carry nine stars representing each state, which were yellow, blue and red in horizontal stripes, “occupying the Yello… U.S. EmbassyCalle 22D Bis, No. Let’s explore it! 4. There are many Colombia facts a lot more interesting than Pablo Escobar or the FARC. Consular Affairs Publications, which contain information on obtaining passports and planning a safe trip abroad, are also available at http://www.travel.state.gov. The two main civilizations that formed were the Tairona and the Muisca peoples. What might prove the biggest change to the current balance is the reformation of militant rebel group FARC (Fuerza Armada Revolucionaria de Colombia, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia) into the communist political party FARC (Fuerza Alternativa Revolucionaria del Común, the People's Alternative Revolutionary Force). Colombia is one of the world’s top coffee exporters and we ship millions of bags of our finest beans abroad every year. Beer is so common in this game, it’s almost a rule. Colombia’s history dates back to hundreds of years. On March 1, 2008, Colombian forces crossed into Ecuadorean territory and killed FARC rebel leader, Raúl Reyes, and 23 other rebels. Interesting facts about Colombia. Indications that hunter-gatherer societies lived in Colombia in around 1200 BC has been discovered near Bogota (at El Arbra and Tequendama) however evidence of human habitation of South America has been dated as far back as 43, 000 BC. Colombia Geo Superlatives Colombia is the fourth largest country in South America and the second most populous country in South America after Brazil. Months of negotiations between Chavez and FARC rebels over the release of three hostages came to an end on December 31, 2007, when the FARC refused to hand them over, saying the promised security conditions had not been met. Columbus saw the coasts of Venezuela, Colombia and Panama and he gave them his own name. One out of every five butterfly species is found in Colombia. TradeIn 2006, Colombia was the United States' fifth-largest export market in the Western Hemisphere behind Canada, Mexico, Brazil, and Venezuela and the largest agricultural export market in the hemisphere after the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) countries. On July 2, 2008, after being held for six years by FARC rebels, 15 hostages, including three U.S. military contractors and French-Colombian politician Ingrid Betancourt, were freed by commandos who infiltrated FARC's leadership. There are three main archeologi… $16.17 #31. The country has coastlines on two oceans : the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea which is part of the Atlantic Ocean. Learn about one of the world's oldest and most popular religions. Its original name was Bacatá: The current land of Bogotá was first inhabited by the Muiscas, one of the multiple aboriginal groups that have lived in Colombia since the Precolumbian era until now. Former Defense Minister Juan Manuel Santos handily won the second round of presidential elections in June 2010, taking 69% of the vote. People Language. The Department of State encourages all U.S citizens traveling or residing abroad to register via the State Department's travel registration website or at the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate abroad. 3. 5. Signed back on November 22, 2006, the agreement was made to eliminate tariffs and other trade barriers for goods and services between Colombia and the United States. The official language of Colombia is Spanish. Now here’s the skinny on Medellin’s history and other interesting facts that will help you get a great idea about the immense Colombian City! In 2004, the Uribe government established, for the first time in recent Colombian history, a government presence in all of the country's 1,099 municipalities (county seats). The agreement granted duty-free treatment to farm products and a variety of foods. 37. Colombia's Ministry of Defense is charged with the country's internal and external defense and security, and exercises jurisdiction over an army, navy--including marines and coast guard--air force, and national police under the leadership of a civilian Minister of Defense. Colombia maintains an excellent extradition relationship with the United States. His son Sebastián Marroquín, born Juan Pablo Escobar, 24 February 1977, is a motivational speaker. Andrés Pastrana Arango was elected president in 1998, pledging to clean up corruption. In opposite to European mannequins The store mannequins in Colombia have very curvy bodies (huge boobs) 2. Travel Warnings are issued when the State Department recommends that Americans avoid travel to a certain country because the situation is dangerous or unstable. 51. 25. The new strategy continues successful Plan Colombia programs while increasing state presence by improving access to social services, and supporting economic development through sustainable growth and trade. When Rojas failed to restore democratic rule and became implicated in corrupt schemes, he was overthrown by the military with the support of the Liberal and Conservative Parties. The architecture of the nation reflectsSpanish colonial origins from the seventeenth century. People living in Colombia are called Colombian. Colombia's visual arts scene has been garnering attention in the past few decades. Guerrillas and paramilitary groups also entered into drug trafficking as a way to finance their military operations. Colombia’s Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, at 13,000 m, is the world’s highest coastal mountain range. Mind your pronunciation because Colombians have a very fine ear for details. 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